It is well known that the performance of frequency-division-duplex (FDD) massive MIMO systems with i.i.d. channels is disappointing compared with that of time-division-duplex (TDD) systems, due to the prohibitively large overhead for acquiring channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). In this paper, we investigate the achievable rates of FDD massive MIMO systems with spatially correlated channels, considering the CSIT acquisition dimensionality loss, the imperfection of CSIT and the regularized-zero-forcing linear precoder. The achievable rates are optimized by judiciously designing the downlink channel training sequences and user CSIT feedback codebooks, exploiting the multiuser spatial channel correlation. We compare our achievable rates with TDD massive MIMO systems, i.i.d. FDD systems, and the joint spatial division and multiplexing (JSDM) scheme, by deriving the deterministic equivalents of the achievable rates, based on popular channel models. It is shown that, based on the proposed eigenspace channel estimation schemes, the rate-gap between FDD systems and TDD systems is significantly narrowed, even approached under moderate number of base station antennas. Compared to the JSDM scheme, our proposal achieves dimensionality-reduction channel estimation without channel pre-projection, and higher throughput for moderate number of antennas and moderate to large channel coherence time, though at higher computational complexity.